That's a transliteration of the Hebrew words meaning "Head (of) The Year." "Rosh" means "head," "Ha" means "the" and "Shanah" means "year." "Of" is understood, so it doesn't have to be written.
As with most languages, Hebrew has varying pronunciations. A less-formal (and perhaps more Yiddish-like) pronunciation of "Rosh Hashanah" is "Rusha (like Limbaugh) shunnah (like shunner)."
Hebrew and Arabic are similar Semitic languages. The Hebrew "shalom" (which is used for "hello," "goodbye" and "peace") is "salaam" in Arabic. The Islamic New Year's Day is "Ras as-Sanah" and was last celebrated on the evening of November 14, 2012 and the day of November 15.
The picture up above shows a "shofar." It's a ram's horn used to make toots and squeaks to celebrate the new year. It's kind of a Jewish vuvuzela. You can hear a shofar here. Shofar humor is here and here.
The common New Year's greeting is "Shanah Tovah." (It rhymes with blah-blah nova.) There are longer greetings, too.
- In Hebrew the word for "she" is pronounced like "he" and the word for "he" is pronounced like "who." The word for "who" is pronounced like "me." The word for "fish" is pronounced kind of like "dog." (And you thought English was confusing?) My first name in Hebrew is "Mee-cha-ail." means "who is like God." I'm not sure if it's a question or a comparison. Maybe my parents chose the name because they thought I was divine prenatally.
Adapted from jewfaq.org: The Jewish calendar is based on three astronomical phenomena: the rotation of the Earth around its axis (a day); the revolution of the moon around the Earth (a month); and the revolution of the Earth around the sun (a year). These three phenomena are independent of each other, so they have no direct correlation. On average, the moon revolves around the Earth in about 29½ days. The Earth revolves around the sun in about 365¼ days -- about 12.4 lunar months.
In the Jewish calendar, months have either 29 or 30 days, corresponding to the 29½-day lunar cycle. Years have either 12 or 13 months, corresponding to the 12.4 month solar cycle -- which creates a problem.
A 12-month lunar calendar is about 11 days shorter than a solar year and a 13-month lunar year is about 19 days longer than a solar year. The months drift around the seasons on such a calendar. To compensate for this drift, the Jewish calendar uses a 12-month lunar calendar with an extra month occasionally added.
Instead of the February 29th Leap Day (also known as Sadie Hawkins Day, when women are allowed to propose marriage to men) the Jewish calendar can have a leap month.
- Jewish holidays that have fixed dates in the Jewish calendar have changing dates in the western "Gregorian" calendar. Most western Christian holidays, like Christmas, have fixed Gregorian dates. Easter, on the other hand, moves around. Supposedly Jesus's "last supper" was a Passover seder. Passover and Easter are usually close. Christmas and Chanukah (often inaccurately called the "Jewish Christmas") may be very close together, or weeks apart. This year, the intersection of the Jewish and 'regular' calendars is particularly weird. Rosh Hashanah is unusually early (Gregorian-wise) and the first day of Chanukah is on Thanksgiving.) In 2016, Chanukah starts on the evening of December 24 -- which is also Christmas eve. More about Easter dates is here.
Adapted from Wikipedia: Parts of 2013 and 2014 constitute the Year of the Snake in the Chinese calendar. It started on February 10, 2013, but the Chinese New Year can be in January or February. It's believed that the Chinese calendar has been in use for almost 5,000 years.
Adapted from chinese.new-year.co.uk: The Chinese Lunar Calendar names each of the 12 years after an animal. Legend has it that the Lord Buddha summoned all of the animals to come to him before he departed from Earth. Only 12 came, and as a reward he named a year after each one in the order they arrived. The Chinese believe the animal ruling the year in which a person is born has a profound influence on personality.
The Chinese calendar provides leap months, like the Jewish calendar. There was one in 2006. Jews and Chinese have much in common -- emphasis on family, education, entrepreneurship and love of Chinese food. During World War II, some Jewish refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe found safety in China. Shanghai Ghetto is a great movie about that period.
- So, if according to the Jewish calendar, the year is 5774, and according to the Chinese calendar, the year is 4710, what did Jewish people eat for the first 1064 years until Chinese restaurants appeared?