This is an area where a self-publishing author has a big advantage over authors whose books are formatted by others. The author--not some stranger--gets to decide on the appropriate surgery.
Take advantage of shorter words and contractions. “Pasta” takes up less space than “macaroni” or “spaghetti.” “Group” and “club” are shorter than “organization.” "Costly" is smaller than "expensive." “J. P. Morgan” takes up less space than “John Pierpont Morgan.” "USA" is much shorter than "United States." "A "box" takes up less space than a "package." A "car" needs less room than an "automobile."
- These substitutions also work well in arranging text around a photo.
- Sometimes it can be useful to substitute in the other direction. A longer word may help you to make a better looking block of text, especially with justified copy if there is a lot of extra word spacing.
Widows and orphans are lonely and need some attention. They make a book look lousy and amateurish and waste paper and trees. Do your best to eliminate them.
A widow is the last line of a paragraph that shows up at the top of a page, or at the top of a column on a page with multiple columns.
In typography, an orphan has two meanings:
(1) An orphan can be a single line of type beginning a paragraph at the bottom of a page, or at the bottom of a column on a page with multiple columns.
(2) The other kind of orphan is a single word or the final syllable of a hyphenated word on a line by itself.
From the Chicago Manual of Style: “A page should not begin with the last line of a paragraph unless it is full measure and should not end with the first line of a new paragraph. Nor should the last word in any paragraph be broken—that is, hyphenated, with the last part of the word beginning a new line.” NOTE: I've heard that the newest version of "Chicago" is more permissive, but I have not yet received a copy.