Monday, November 30, 2015

Sometimes feeling badly is not goodly

I heard an unhappy Congressman interviewed on MSNBC. He said that he felt badly about the result of an election.

"Badly" is an adverb. In this case, it describes the act of feeling. You may feel badly if you have nerve damage to your fingers or are clumsy.

If you are unhappy, you feel "bad" -- with no "ly."

Similarly, if you feel badly, you don't feel well. If you feel bad, you don't feel good.

I have a feeling that 'educated' people say "I don't feel well" when discussing their health, instead of "I don't feel good" because "well" is a more adult word than "good." It may be more adult -- but it's the wrong word. It seems to have become an acceptable inaccurate phrase, like when the TV newsman tells viewers "I'll see you tomorrow."

Now, I hope you feel better.

"Better" works in both cases. If you are more dexterous than Dexter, you feel better than he feels. If you have gotten over an illness, you feel better than you used to feel.

(photo from Business-Stock-Photos.com) 

Thursday, November 26, 2015

Today is not "Macy's Day," damn it

I hope I live long enough to witness a Thanksgiving Day when no dopey newscaster for a New York TV or radio station refers to the "Macy's Day Parade" instead of "Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade." The parade was first presented in 1924, and the mis-labeling probably started soon after.

[above] HOLY TURKEY SHIT! It's worse than I thought. I like Macy's. I'm a third-generation Macy's customer, but this is ridiculous. 

The selling of "naming rights" like "Citi (Bank) Field" and "Staples Center" is common for buildings -- but are holidays next? Will we see "Disney July Fourth," "Manischewitz Passover" or "Bud Lite News Year?"

[above] While I'm at it, I'd like to throw some mud at the media dimwits and ordinary New Yorkers who type or say "Port of Authority" (really the "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey").

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Authors who reduce ego can increase income

While you may be flattered by a high "cover price" on your book, you may make more money in total if the book has a lower price.

Here are comparisons (rounded off) of an author's monthly income for one independently self-pubbed book:
  • January 2011, for a $15.95 paperback: $64
  • January 2012, for the $4.99 ebook, discounted to $4.12: $220
  • January 2013, for the ebook reduced to $2.99 and discounted to $2.51: $345
Not only did total income increase as the price has been reduced, but sales have increased as the book has gotten older -- which is not the typical pattern for book sales.

For a Lamborghini, high price is a marketing device. For a book, low price is a marketing device.

The low price enables and encourages more people to buy the book, and they apparently recommend the book to others. Maybe a reader will recommend it to a movie producer.

While no author in 21st-century-America can live on $345 per month, if you have 10, 20 or 30 books generating that income, you can think about quitting your day job.


dollar sign from http://bma-wealth.blogspot.com/2012/04/what-does-dollar-sign-represent.html

Lamborghini Aventador photo from www.lamborghini.com/en/home/

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Hershey's has wonderful chocolate, dreadful typography

For at least the third consecutive Christmas season, Hershey's has been running a very pleasant, very effective and very simple animated Christmas commercial featuring its iconic Hershey's Kisses. 

Sadly and inexplicably the company -- with sales of nearly $7.5 billion, a city named after it and an advertising budget budget of about $600 million -- used amateur typography in the commercial.

Instead of a proper curly or slanted apostrophe, the company name at the end of the commercial has an inappropriate straight apostrophe. That's what comes from an old-fashioned typewriter or the primitive software used in a blog like this one, not what can come from word processing or graphics software that produces proper typographers' marks. The text line includes two copyright symbols, so the software certainly could have produced a curly apostrophe. Did the designer fuck up, or was she or he being deliberately incorrect?

Am I the only one who notices and cares about this stuff?

With primitive equipment or software the same straight symbol is used for an apostrophe, a foot, a minute or a quotation.

In packaging, logos, advertising and on books, it's important to use a proper curly apostrophe.

Hershey's has been in business since 1876. Early packaging used traditional curly apostrophes. The typographer did a nice job kerning the apostrophe and "Y."

The Hershey products now use modern, non-curly, slanted apostrophes. That's OK, too.

Monday, November 23, 2015

Don't nip someone's butt.

Stupid English mistakes may be funny, but they're still stupid. Be careful.

Seen online, in print, on signs:
  1. Would of gone (would have gone)
  2. Brew-ha-ha (brouhaha)
  3. Poured (pored)
  4. High bread (hybrid)
  5. Bare with me (bear)
  6. For all intensive purposes (intents and purposes)
  7. Alcoholics Unanimous (Anonymous)
  8. 500-pound guerrilla (gorilla)
  9. A whole nother (another whole, or just another)
  10. Pneumonic (mnemonic)
  11. Walk the talk (walk the walk and talk the talk)
  12. Vestal interest (vested interest or vestal virgin)
  13. Covered operation (covert)
  14. Cowtow (kowtow)
  15. Southmore (sophomore)
  16. Eggcorn (acorn)
  17. Beyond the pail (pale)
  18. Reign in (rein)
  19. Duel fuel (dual)
  20. Nip it in the butt (bud)

Friday, November 20, 2015

Can you trust what you read? Can readers trust what you write?

When words are printed on paper or put on a computer screen they seem to have much more authority than when they are merely spoken.

I personally have put hundreds of thousands—maybe even millions—of words on the pages of books, newspapers, magazines, websites and even on packages of food and motor oil.

Take it from me, those words have no more authority than when they are in my head or emanate from my mouth.

I’ve published some highly successful April Fool’s scam news reports. I've conned many experts. Supposedly “you can’t bullshit a bullshitter,” but I confess to being fooled several times.
At one time, before words were published, they were checked, edited, verified, vetted, sanctioned and approved by a series of people with knowledge and standards.
In the 21st century, there is little or none of that. Just as anyone can sue anyone for anything, anyone can say—and publish—anything about anyone or anything.

While there are many reliable sources of information, there are many that are unreliable. Some, such as satirical websites, are deliberately unreliable. Sadly—or humorously—the unreliable sources often seem as reliable as the reliable sources.

The digital manipulation that makes modern sci-fi movies so realistic could create realistic—and phony—videos of events that never happen.

So, how can you determine which sources to trust and which words to believe?
  • Follow multiple media, with different political viewpoints, from different cities and maybe even from different countries.
  • Apply common sense. If something seems truly outrageous, it may be not true.
  • Ask experts who have been truthful and accurate in the past.
  • Don’t automatically accept news, advice or information from people and institutions that want to sell you something or vote in a particular way.
  • Most people know that The Onion publishes untrue satire, but there are many similar but less-known sites such as The Daily Currant and The Borowitz Report. Some satire sites have fine print that explain that they are not to be believed—but some don’t.
  • Last year I published a satirical post on this blog—but it was taken seriously by at least one person who should have known better.
  • Don’t believe anything published on April first. 

Thursday, November 19, 2015

How to find a "bargain" editor for your book

Lack of professional editing and design are the two main reasons that millions of self-pubbed books turn out crappy even if the authors are decent writers with something worthwhile to say.

Sadly, many self-published authors ignore proper editing for their books, either out of ignorance, egomania or an unrealistically low budget.

While writers' magazines and directories have lists and ads for professional editors, there is another potential source of high-quality editing that may be available for less money, and the editors may be available to do your work much sooner.

Check with some journalism departments and college newspapers -- perhaps where you went to school -- and chances are you'll be able to find several bright and eager candidates. Read some samples of their work. Maybe submit a sample chapter for editing. Ask a faculty member for opinions. Then make the deal.

Skill levels will vary, of course, and so will needs and costs. You can pay per hour or per project. Expect to pay more if you need major rewriting than just copyediting.

A student who has a part-time job making minimum wage flipping burgers will probably be thrilled to earn $20 per hour, or $300 - $500 for a project. As a comparison, one publishing company that caters to self-publishing authors recently charged $50 per hour or 1.4 cents per word.

If the job goes well, be sure to put your editor's name in the book, and send a note to her or his faculty adviser.

As long as you're investigating colleges, consider hiring a professor, not just a student. If you're writing in a specialized field, it could be worthwhile to hire a faculty member to check your facts, and pay someone else to polish your prose.

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

I like money, but hate moneys

Nearly every time I see the plural "moneys" or "monies," I have to fight a strong urge to puke or throw rocks.

The strange term has legitimate but limited uses, such as when economists or politicians discuss funding coming from different sources. An example would be "We plan to finance the new sewer system with moneys from state and federal grants." However, non-awkward "money," "funding" or "funds" would work just fine in that sentence.) 

Sadly, "moneys" creeps into non-governmental speech and writing.

I read the following on a website about selling books: "As a hobbyist, you will go the print-on-demand (POD) route for minimal moneys . . . ."

The offender is an author, publisher, book publicist and public speaker who lectures on publishing and public relations. He co-hosts a radio show and has a degree from the Ithaca College School of Communications.

Hey Mister Communicator, would the meaning of your sentence change if you wrote "money" instead of "moneys?"

I hate "persons" as much as I hate "moneys." "People" works fine as a plural of "person."

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Humor is very important to me but I decided to not use 'funny' spelling in a title

I designed and wore the shirt shown above when I went to the hospital to be treated for a kidney stone. It made people laugh and laughter is the best medicine. Most people are too serious most of the time but I’m frequently able to find humor when others can’t, like when I'm awaiting surgery. Most people who know me (except for those who hate me) probably think I'm a pretty funny guy.

My wife often complains that I have a reckless sense of humor and I “go too far.” She’s afraid that I’m going to get into trouble like Lenny Bruce and George Carlin. I think artistic expression outranks domestic tranquility. In my domicile, we have much more expression than tranquility.

Sometimes humor can backfire and hurt the joker. I  contemplated that possibility and slightly changed the titles and covers of two recent books. My efforts at humor could limit my books' sales and my income, so I decided that it would be better for me to be more serious than I had planned. 

Both initial titles had intentional spelling errors. I had assumed that every potential reader would realize that. But maybe they won't. Maybe some super-serious (or stupid?) people would think I accidentally made the errors and didn't catch them and fix them.
  • Maybe some people would think I'm guilty of the same shortcomings that I criticize in others. (Heaven forbid!)
  • Another reason to not have deliberate misspellings in a book's title is that search engines like Google don't understand jokes (at least, not yet). They will index the misspelled term, and anyone looking for links to the properly spelled phrase will not find my books. That's not good.
Old and New, #1

Old and New, #2

Of course, just because I made these books more serious doesn't mean that I'll stop laughing, even at myself.

Monday, November 16, 2015

How many book sales are you losing because of uninformed readers?
What can you do about it?

Some of the 145 ebooks I can read on one of my PCs

Many millions of ebooks, ebook readers and devices that can display ebooks are sold each year. But, despite the eboom, not everyone wants to read ebooks.
I recently received an email from someone who was interested in one of my Kindle-only books. He urged me to publish a pbook version because he doesn't have a Kindle, tablet or smart phone and said he can't afford one.

While new Kindles and no-name tablets may be bought for less than $50, and smartphones are available for FREE (with a new contract), authors face a bigger problem from readers who lack information than from readers who lack money.

This reader -- and maybe hundreds, thousands or millions of others -- did not know that he could read my ebook on the same PC he used to send me the email, without spending a penny on new equipment or software.

The advertising for exciting products from Amazon, Apple, Samsung and others is obscuring the fact that people can read ebooks without any of them.

While it may be tempting to dismiss readers who lack the latest tech toys, they do know how to read, and do buy books.

One solution is to publish both e and p (and I do that for some of my books, below).

Another solution, which is simpler and less expensive, is to be sure to mention that your ebooks can be read on almost any computer, and the bigger screen may provide a better reading experience than a small screen can.

I'm typing this while viewing a 27-inch monitor. My iPad is standing up immediately to the right of the monitor, and my Kindle Fire and smartphone are about eight feet from here. My smaller portables are great if I'm in a car, on a plane, in a hotel or doctor's office. But if I want to read an ebook while sitting at this desk, I prefer the giant screen.

It takes a lot of effort to write and promote a book. It would be a tragedy to lose sales to interested readers who think they can't read your ebooks -- but can.

Lots of people who like to read do not require portability. Let them know how easy and inexpensive it is to read what you write.

Free Kindle software for PC

Free Kindle software for Mac

Free Nook software for PC

Free Nook software for Mac

Free Adobe Digital Editions software for PC or Mac

Friday, November 13, 2015

On book pages, optical delusions can be marvelous manipulations

The optical center is a concept that demonstrates that it can be better if you use what looks right rather than what measures right. Because the true vertical center often looks too low, if you want something to appear equidistant from the bottom and top, position it a little bit above the true center. (The dot on the right is a little bit too high.)

[above] Sometimes what you see (or think others will see) is more important than what you measure. The upper line of text shows normal letterspacing. The lower line shows that some adjacent vertical letters benefit from increased spacing, and that adjacent round letters, which diverge from their closest points, look better with less spacing.

[above] The upper line has normal letterspacing. The lower line looks better because letterspacing was decreased ("kerned") to compensate for the diverging letterforms.

[above] Parentheses and brackets may be too low to look right in large sizes. Change the vertical alignment (within Font settings in Word). There is probably no need to do this in text sizes.

[above] You may have to add additional space to keep a letter, number or symbol from crashing into a parentheses or bracket. Height and spacing adjustments will vary with character, typeface, case and tilt (roman v. italic or oblique).

[above] Hyphens, em dashes and en dashes may have to be raised a bit in large type.

[above] The height and relative size of the “@” symbol varies greatly among typefaces. In large type sizes, experiment with lowering and/or enlarging the symbol so it aligns better with adjacent text.

Today's material is updated from my upcoming e-book, Typography for Independent Publishers

Thursday, November 12, 2015

Crackpot Sharron Angle didn't know how to write a book. AuthorHouse didn't know how to publish it.

Right-leaning Sharron Angle,
one third of the Silly Sorority
 which includes Sarah Palin and Michele Bachmann

Tilted-to-the-right Teabagger Sharron wanted to write a book. She was a Republican member of the Nevada Assembly from 1999 to 2007. She lost the race for the U.S. Senate to Ralph Reid in 2010, despite endorsements from the Teabaggers, paranoid/nasty radio talker Mark Levin, the Club for Growth, Pat Boone and Phyllis Schlafly. 

Joe The Plumber endorsed her, too.

According to Wikipedia, "Angle was criticized during the campaign for largely avoiding answering questions from the press, both local and national. In September, the Las Vegas Review-Journal sued her for copyright infringement after she allegedly posted entire articles from the publication on her campaign website without permission. After the campaign ended, it was revealed that the campaign developed a code word to alert office workers if the media entered the campaign headquarters: "It's time to water the plants."
  • Angle believes that the U.S. Department of Education is unconstitutional and should be eliminated.
  • She said that the U.S. should withdraw from the United Nations, saying it is a bastion of liberal ideology.
  • She believes that global warming is "fraudulent science."
  • Angle supports the Federal Marriage Amendment to ban same-sex marriage.
  • Angle opposes abortion, including in cases of rape or incest ('against God's plan')
  • Angle does not believe that the United States Constitution mandates the separation of church and state.
  • She voted against fluoridating drinking water.
  • Angle proposed a bill that would have required doctors to inform women seeking abortions about a controversial theory linking an increased risk of breast cancer with abortion. 
  • She sponsored a bill to remove the requirement that health insurers cover mammograms and colonoscopies. 
  • Angle said that the Social Security system should be "transitioned out".
  • Angle favors eliminating the complete Internal Revenue Service code and abolishing Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.
  • She favors widespread armament to defend the American population against the government and decried a shortage of bullets in gun stores. Congressman Jim Clyburn said that Sharron's endorsement of "Second Amendment remedies" in her losing campaign contributed to the shooting of Rep. Gabrielle Giffords.
  • Crackpot Sharron even claimed that the 9/11 hijackers entered the United States through Canada.
Sharon may have been inspired by the financial success of her spiritual sister Sarah Palin. The moosemama's first book Going Rogue is ghost-written garbage (I own a copy) but still managed to become a New York Times #1 bestseller in its first week of release. Its publicity and sales were boosted by a very visible price war among booksellers when it first came out. Sarah's second book was a flop.

Sharron may have felt that her candidacy would be enhanced by publication of a memoir "about her life and values." (Where's my barf bag?)

It should be obvious that I think that Sharron Angle is a nut job, but I certainly believe she has the right to spew her wacky words at anyone who will listen to or read them.

However, it seems like no traditional publisher was willing to take a chance on Sharron and offer her a deal like Sarah got, (even Sarah's daughter's baby-daddy got a 'normal' book deal from Simon & Schuster).

So, Sharron decided to pay AuthorHouse to produce her book. AuthorHouse's publishing packages start at $599 and can cost up to $15,000.

Since Sharron's parents could not even spell "Sharon" correctly, I had little hope that their darling daughter would turn out a decent book.

My pessimism was justified.

The book has two introductions (by Mark Levin and Lee Cary, a writer for the American Thinker website). Normally, a book has one introduction, written by the author.
It's unusual for a book to have two introductions (and Sharron is certainly unusual).

However, the book's fatal flaw is that its foreword was written by Sharron, herself.

OK, Sharron is an ignoramus, and an inexperienced author, but someone at AuthorHouse should've known that the foreword is 
not supposed to be written by the author. It’s often written by someone who knows the author, or — even better — by someone famous.

In one of the introductions, Lee Cary says that the book was edited. Apparently Sharron's editor knows as little about books as do Sharron and her support staff at AuthorHouse. 
AuthorHouse boasts that it is "committed to providing the highest level of customer service in book publishing, AuthorHouse assigns each author a personal publishing consultant, who provides guidance throughout the self publishing process."

Sharron's consultant doesn't know enough about publishing.

Sharron's book, like others, shows that the Author Solutions people are incompetent, ignorant, uncaring or all three. The web has a great many complaints by authors about Author Solutions brands. Author Solutions is the target of a class action suit by authors. STAY AWAY.  


The Amazon sales rank for Sharron's book is in the toilet, where it belongs.
Sharron has a lot to learn about life. AuthorHouse has a lot to learn about publishing.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

The missing ingredients in unpopular books: PASSION and PROMOTION

The Internet is filled with advice on creating bestselling books. Most of it involves finding the most popular online search topics.

According to many of the 'experts' (most of whom want to sell you something), if millions of people are interested in Oprah, Wells Fargo or Obama, you can easily sell millions of books about Oprah, Wells Fargo or Obama and make millions of dollars.
  • The authoritative ignoramuses say that it doesn't matter if you're a shitty writer, know nothing about the subject and don't think professional editing and design are necessary.
Some 'experts' tell you that instead of actually writing a book you can just copy words from the web and paste them together, use any available software to create a cover and soon untold riches and fame will be yours.

(above) Sadly, many of the ugliest and least-useful books are written to help others publish books.

There is no certainty about selling anything. There are many things a writer -- even a very good writer -- cannot control.  
  • Research, testing and advance publicity might be useful, but trying to tailor a book to perceived reader interest can lead to yet another redundant barbecue cookbook, stop-smoking guide or celebrity confession.
Market research is no substitute for PASSION for the subject of the book and strong PROMOTION for the book.
  • Without passion, writers are factory laborers.
  • Without effective promotion, potential readers won't know the book exists.
Also, if you delay publication so you can engage in extensive research and test marketing, interest in the subject may pass by the time your book goes on sale, or competitive books may beat you to the marketplace.
  • If an author is aiming at traditional publishing, a year of advance research before a search for an agent and publisher can be an eternity.
  • Self-publishing greatly reduces the time-to-market compared to traditional publishing. A book can be published in a few weeks or months.
Over a dozen of my books have been bestsellers with ZERO market research. Steve Jobs developed amazing Apple products based on his own passion, not on market research.

My latest book, Do As I Say, Not As I Did quickly became a bestseller without my checking to find out what people were searching for on Google or Bing. I wrote about what I know about and have passion for.


Tuesday, November 10, 2015

It's 50 years since a big power failure, and a funny communication failure

Sometimes a print or broadcast journalist will hear a word and think she or he understands what it means, but doesn't.

On Tuesday, November 9, 1965, a power blackout shut down the supply of electricity to New York, New Jersey, New England and Ontario, Canada.  Over 30 million people were powerless for up to 12 hours.

I heard a news report broadcast by WOR radio (which was operating with an emergency generator). The newsperson told us that there had been "a failure of the power grid," and as soon as a replacement could be located and installed, power would be restored.

The sincere but ignorant person apparently assumed that a power grid was a simple gizmo that could be purchased at a nearby Radio Shack -- not the network that connects power companies in multiple states.

The misunderstanding probably would not happen today, when independent people proudly "live off the grid."

RadioShack pic from Time mag, 

Monday, November 9, 2015

What's the worst thing about book publishing?

Everybody is a goddam busybody.

Movie studios announce their "weekend gross" and the figures are published by Box Office Mojo -- an online reporting service currently averaging over two million unique visitors per month. Those millions can't possibly all be theater owners, actors, agents, producers, directors and studio bosses. Fans and groupies are intensely interested in ticket sales.

Box Office Mojo is regularly quoted in business publications like the Wall Street Journal, plus mainstream USA Today and even local newspapers such as the New York Daily News, and broadcast media.

It seems that much of the world's population has an intense desire to know the details of every commercial enterprise.

When people learn that I've written and published a bunch of books, the instant reaction is "how many have you sold?"

These people are friends, relatives and even complete strangers who would not likely ask about my salary, net worth or medical condition -- but they think it's fine to ask about my book sales.

I often feel like saying "It's none of your damn business," but the honest answer is that I don't know how many I've sold. And I don't even care how many I've sold. I make a profit. I pay my bills. Money comes in every month. The amounts go up and down and up again. I like what I'm doing and expect to have an income for the rest of my life.

Some folks seem to evaluate authors based on their bestseller status. Those busybodies can write their own damn books and see how easy it isn't. (A few of my books are bestsellers and one, strangely, was an Amazon bestseller on the first day it was available.)

And, unless you're an IRS agent or you want to make a movie based on one of my books, my sales figures really are none of your damn business.

I write primarily for personal satisfaction. After that come entertaining, informing and maybe changing the world. Fame is OK, too. I'm no longer 17 and searching for sex. I have plenty of food. I don't need to impress my parents or teachers. Making money is a very pleasant side benefit of writing, but it's not my prime motivator.

Many books about publishing (some that I've written) talk about the profitability of publishing, but there’s nothing wrong with publishing for pleasure. The cost of publishing a book may be much less than the cost of a boat, a vacation or even a pool table -- and nobody expects them to show a profit.

If you can afford to publish for fun, do it. If you can make money while having fun, that’s even better. Your motivation -- and your money -- are nobody's business but yours.

(Chart from BoxOfficeMojo.com. Pool table photo from StarJumper, licensed through fotolia.com

Friday, November 6, 2015

Archaic magazine title terms are too "fancy" for me

Two of the strangest survivors of an earlier era in speaking and publishing are Cat Fancy and Dog Fancy magazines.
  • In the 1880s, a thirsty cowboy might stroll into a saloon and say "I'd fancy a sarsaparilla" (pronounced "sasperilla").
  • In the 1970s I attended an "invention expo" at the New York Colosseum. The inventor of a weird hi-fi gadget gave me a business card that identified him as a "fancier in audio sound."
Well, fancy that!

Obviously he was not a fancier in the removal of redundancies. 

In the 21st century, does anyone fancy anything? Is this usage officially dead? 

When I was a teenager, I subscribed to Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, Popular Photography, Popular Electronics and many similar mags. 

Some publishing competitors favored the "Illustrated" term. I subscribed to Electronics Illustrated, Mechanix Illustrated and Sports Cars Illustrated (which later became Car and Driver). Apparently, 50 years ago it was important to point out that a magazine contained pictures.

Some magazine publishers thought it was important to include "magazine" or "monthly" in their titles. I thought it would be fun to publish Popular Illustrated Monthly Magazine.

Few print magazines are started now, but if one was, would it be called "Popular" anything?

People are popular, but People magazine doesn't have to be called Popular People. Politics is/are very popular. But instead of Popular Politics, we have HuffPost and Mother Jones.

Fancy that!

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Hickeys belong on people, not on book pages

When I was a teenager, a hickey was bruise caused by sucking skin, usually on the neck. On Mondays, kids proudly displayed their hickeys as indicators of intense passion over the weekend.

In printing, a hickey (also known as a bull’s eye or fish eye) is a spot or imperfection on a printed paper caused by dirt.

(above) When newspapers were “pasted up” by hand it was common for extraneous strips of paper with text on them, or nothing on them, to get dropped onto what would become the printing plate—and their images would be printed. (Newspaper article above was written by yours truly for the Brown & White at Lehigh University in 1966 -- when college students used slide rules, cigarettes cost 27 cents a pack and there were no iPads. However, sex had been invented.)

(above) It’s unlikely that you will encounter those problems in a book made with word-processing software, a PDF and print on demand or e-publishing -- but there is a 21st century version of the hickey.

If you use the Print Screen function of your computer, or software such as
Snagit, you might accidentally capture an image with a cursor or pointer in it. Be careful.


top photo from Janek B. Thanks.